JAVA

What is Java?
Java is a general-purpose, class-based, object-oriented programming language designed for having
lesser implementation dependencies. It is a computing platform for application development. Java is
fast, secure, and reliable, therefore. It is widely used for developing Java applications in laptops,
data centers, game consoles, scientific supercomputers, cell phones, etc.
Java is a programming language and computing platform first released by Sun Microsystems in 1995. It
has evolved from humble beginnings to power a large share of today’s digital world, by providing the
reliable platform upon which many services and applications are built. New, innovative products and
digital services designed for the future continue to rely on Java, as well.
While most modern Java applications combine the Java runtime and application together, there are still
many applications and even some websites that will not function unless you have a desktop Java
installed. Java.com, this website, is intended for consumers who may still require Java for their desktop
applications – specifically applications targeting Java 8. Developers as well as users that would like to
learn Java programming should visit the  dev.java  website instead and business users should
visit  oracle.com/java  for more information.
Prerequisites
Experience with a high level language (C, MATLAB) is a prerequisite.
Knowledge of an object-oriented language (C++, C#, Ada) is helpful but not mandatory.
Learning Objectives.
The learning objectives of this course are:

  • To learn why Java is useful for the design of desktop and web applications.
  • To learn how to implement object-oriented designs with Java.
  • To identify Java language components and how they work together in applications.
  • To design and program stand-alone Java applications.
  • To learn how to design a graphical user interface (GUI) with Java Swing.
  • To understand how to use Java APIs for program development.
  • To learn how to extend Java classes with inheritance and dynamic binding.
  • To learn how to use exception handling in Java applications.
  • To understand how to design GUI components with the Java Swing API.
  • To learn Java generics and how to use the Java Collections API.
  • To understand how to design applications with threads in Java.
  • To learn how to read and write files in Java.

Java Career Opportunities 
After getting the right tools under the belt, you will now need to browse through different job postings
to start your career in Java.
The current market has job titles like:
1. Junior Developer
A junior developer position is where everyone will start. This is the lowest position for a software
engineer. A person in this position will be responsible to write, analyze, test, and debug code. Generally,
they are part of teams that have mentors and leaders whom they have to report to.
At this stage, the developer must focus on getting familiar with the industry practices as generally, it is
their first job. One must also focus on developing new skills to get better at their craft and thus either switch to a better company or have a better position in the same company. This is one of the good Java
career opportunities

2. Senior Developer
A senior developer is a person generally responsible for taking charge of a complete project. They are
also responsible for writing some code and having to report to the executive officers and managers of
the company. Along with all this, they are also responsible for mentoring the developers that are new to
the company or the project they are working on. It is seen as the standard job position for a developer.

3. Architect
A java architect is responsible for designing and developing the layout of the application. They
categorize the different logic layers that further helps in the separation of concerns among the team
members working on the project as you have seen in the image above.
The architect is expected to come up with the best technologies that are well-suited for the software to
be built and ensure that they are all compatible with each other.
Other than these, you will also find field-specific job postings that require the programmer to be
efficient in a particular set of things. These are generally posted by large companies who don’t need a
Java programmer who can do a number of things but a programmer skilled in a particular area, generally
for optimization or enhancement of an existing product. These include jobs like:4. Java Web Developer
This is usually a backend position, and the person is responsible for deploying and maintaining server-
side code. With the growing culture of cloud-based systems, it is helpful if you know the basics of  cloud
computing  and has experience in using code to the cloud.
5. Java Android Developer
The developer is responsible for building or adding features to android applications. This is the most
common job posting that you will see out there and is also a wanted position in several startups.
Since every company and service now has a mobile app, the market for these jobs will not dry up
anytime soon.
6. Java EE developer
These developers are given the job of building and maintaining enterprise software. They are generally
posted by big companies and look for a developer with some industry experience.
Freelancing
Freelancing has been made possible through the various freelance sites present on the internet and also
due to easy and fast networking with clients using platforms like LinkedIn. Freelancing can also work as a
part-time Java career opportunity. You get to experience & add to the CV.
But freelance work is not easy and comes with its own challenges like:
a) Irregular frequency of work
b) Demanding clients
c) Less pay at the start
d) High competition
Freelance work for java developers can generally be categorized into two types, centered at two
different kinds of freelancers
1. Coding Job: These are the gigs where you are required to work on a project or develop a new
feature. This is where you actually code in Java. These jobs are a good place to start your career.
Fortunately, these jobs are mostly remote. You can freelance as a Java app developer or Java
web developer.
2. Consulting Developers: These generally hire developers that have had some years of experience
in the industry. A company posts these jobs when they are working on a short deadline,
generally targeting the launch or enhancement of a product or feature. The freelancer is madepart of the projects team and it is generally on-site work. The contract ends at the end of the
project.